The Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is a neural circuit that can produce a rhythmic motor pattern with no need for sensory feedback or descending control [6]. We have some references for CPGs below. Pub. med. links are provided if applicable, links to full articles are provided if there is no indication of copyright violation.

  1. Evidence for a Spinal Central Pattern Generator in Humans. Dimitrijevic, Milan et. al. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 1998, Nov. 16;860:360-76
  2. Neural Control of locomotion; Part 1: The central pattern generator from cats to humans. Duysens, Jacques et. al. Gait and Posture 7 (1998) 131-141.
  3. V1 spinal neurons regulate the speed of vertebrate locomotor outputs. Gosgnach, Simon et. al. Nature, Vol. 440, pp. 215 - 219. 9th March 2006.
  4. How fast can you go? (this article is a non-technical summary of the paper in (2)). Borodinsky, Laura N. Nature, News and Views. Vol. 440, pp. 158-159. 9th March 2006.
  5. Central Pattern Generators for Bipedal Walkers. Golubitsky, Martin M. and Pinto, Alves Carla.
  6. Bio-Inspired Emergent Control of Locomotion Systems. Frasca, Mattia; Arena, Paolo and Fortuna, Luigi. World Scientific Series on Nonlinear Science. Series A. Vol 48. Editor: Chua, Leon O.

For my MS, we implemented a nonlinear oscillator model (RD CNN or Reaction Diffusion CNN) of the CPG. Please refer to my M.S. thesis (under the Publications link), the Simulation link and Circuits link for more information.